The third chapter of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras instructs us about the progression of our practice - Vibhuti Pada.

Yoga-Sutra

Vibhuti-Pada

Sentence 13

etena bhutendriyeshu dharma-laksana-avastha parinama vyakhyatah ||13||

एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्था परिणामा व्याख्याताः ॥१३॥

etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharma-lakṣaṇa-avasthā pariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ ॥13॥

This explains the transformation of relinquishment (dharma-parinama), characteristics (lakshana-parinama) and states into material elements of the senses. ||13||


etena = (i. sg. m./i. sg. n. from eta) by this; by these
bhūtā = (nom. sg. f.) elements
indriyeṣu = (loc. pl. m./loc. pl. n. from indriya) in the sense organs
dharma = (acc. sg. n./nom. sg. n. from dharman) relinquishing something in the world; characteristic; feature, outer form
lakṣaṇā = (nom. sg. f. from lakṣaṇa) attribute; feature; the inner quality of something
avasthāḥ = (acc. pl. f.) state; condition
pariṇāma = change; evolution
vyākhyā = description; explanation
vyākhyātāḥ = (nom. pl. m./acc. pl. f./nom. pl. f. from vyākhyāta) are described

The way we perceive objects is conditioned by our prior experience. Take a laptop computer for example. A Stone Age person might have simply used it as a smooth surface to crack nuts on. In the Middle Ages it might have served as a shield in battle. Today we use laptops to compose texts, watch movies and so on. Hence we perceive everyday objects variously, depending on how we have developed. This relates to the manner in which we use such objects (dharma-parinama); the amount of time we wish to spend using them (lakshana-parinama); and how we perceive them (avastha-parinama).

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