Finally, the fourth chapter of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra is about liberation - Kaivalya Pada.

Yoga-Sutra

Kaivalya-Pada

Sentence 26

tada viveka-ninnam kaivalya-prag-bharam chittam ||26||

तदा विवेकनिम्नं कैवल्यप्राग्भारं चित्तम् ॥२६॥

tadā viveka-nimnaṁ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṁ cittam ॥26॥

Then the power of discernment (viveka) will be strengthened and all that is mutable in human beings (chitta) will take the path of liberation (kaivalya). ||26||


tadā = (adv.) then
viveka = (iic.) discernment; power of discernment
nimnam = (acc. sg. m./acc. sg. n./nom. sg. n. from nimna) incline towards
kaivalya = (iic.) liberation
prāk = (nom. sg. n. from prāc) orientation; inclination
bhāram = (acc. sg. m. from bhāra) weight
cittam = (acc. sg. m./acc. sg. n./nom. sg. n. from citta) spirit; mind; understanding

Discernment is the key to liberation

Discernment (viveka) is the key to changing the unity of the physical, energy, emotional and mental domains (citta) in such a way that they lead directly to the path of liberation (kaivalya).

Viveka and avidyā as opposites

Discernment (viveka) is the exact opposite of a lack of insight (avidyā) and thus of all other burdens on the spiritual path (kleśa) that we encountered in chapter 2 of the Yoga Sutra. We recognize the difference between our true nature (draṣṭu) and the unity of the physical, energy, emotional and mental domains (citta) (asmitā); we realize that our fortunes and sufferings are not dependent on outer circumstances (rāga, dveṣa); and we lose our deep seated anxiety (abhiniveśa). Thus kaivalya is ultimately liberation from a lack of insight (avidyā) and the other burdens engendered thereby (kleśa). However, in the next sentence Patañjali not only tells us what what we should free ourselves from, but also provides a worthwhile goal.

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