These are plosive consonants which are produced labially (i.e. at the lips).

Devanagari

प / pa

Spelling

  1. Draw an u-shaped line from the top left to the top right, followed directly by a vertical line down.
  2. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the letter.

Pronunciation

  • an unvoiced pa as in Papier
  • labial (at the lips) place of articulation

फ / pha

Spelling

  1. Draw the following line without stopping: an u-shaped line from the top left to the centre top, followed by a vertical line down and a clockwise bow starting at the centre down to the bottom right.
  2. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the letter.

Pronunciation

  • an unvoiced, aspirated pha as in Pavillon
  • labial (at the lips) place of articulation

ब / ba

Spelling

  1. Draw the following line without stopping: an anticlockwise circle starting at the centre, followed by a vertical line up and then a vertical line down.
  2. Start at the top left of the circle and, within the circle, draw a line towards the bottom right.
  3. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the letter.

Pronunciation

  • a voiced ba as in Bach
  • labial (at the lips) place of articulation

भ / bha

Spelling

  1. Start at the top left and draw a clockwise loop until you reach the vertical, then a second clockwise loop ending in a horizontal line to the right.
  2. Draw a vertical line from top to bottom through the endpoint of the horizontal line.
  3. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the right half of the letter.

Pronunciation

  • a voiced, aspirated bha as in the Sanskrit Bhagavad Gītā
  • labial (at the lips) place of articulation

म / ma

Spelling

  1. Draw a vertical line from the top left to the centre, followed by a clockwise loop ending in a horizontal line.
  2. Draw a vertical line from top to bottom through the endpoint of the horizontal line.
  3. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the letter.

Pronunciation

  • a nasal ma as in Mandel
  • labial (at the lips) place of articulation
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