AYI.info - The International Ashtanga Yoga Information Page

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"Ashtanga Yoga is 99% transpiration - and 1% explanation"

Sri K. Pattabhi Jois

All you need for your 99% practice of Ashtanga Yoga - and certainly also the 1% theory: Dive into the details of the traditional series of Asana, as taught by Sri K. Pattabhi Jois. But you will also find forms for a therapeutic approach to them. Join us for online yoga classes, learn about innovative alignment and philosophy. Our yogi finder will help you finding your way to a teacher nearby. Best to start with the most popular pages on AYI.info:

The AYI method


"Pure for Sure!"

A proverb from Mysore (The city where Ashtanga comes from)

Tradition and Innovation can form a team: We help you gaining always new perspectives on traditional Ashtanga Yoga. Therefore we have been active for you. These articles and online yoga classes are brand new on AYI.info:


Consonants as final sounds

As final sounds, consonants adapts to the following word according to the external Sandhi rules described here.



Phonetically, a semivowel lies between a vowel and a plosive. In contrast to a vowel, a semivowel does not represent a syllable on its own when articulated. Neither is the vocal tract blocked for the pressure characteristic of a plosive. The tongue moves in the direction of the place of articulation to produce an approximant. In contrast to a fricative, though, the approximation does not go so far as to produce the friction necessary for a fricative. In Sanskrit, there are semivowels for four of the five places of articulation (y, r, l, v).


Visarga (ḥ)

Translated literally, Visarga means "to send out" or "to release". It creates a lingering sound after the vowel. It can be understood as an allophone of r, s or h and is, depending on context and school of pronunciation, pronounced variably between these sounds.


Anusvāra (ṁ)

Translated literally, Anusvāra means "lingering sound" or "following (anu) the vowel (svāra)". It either indicates that the preceding vowel is pronounced nasally or is pronounced itself as a nasal consonant.


Short vowels

Vowels are the best starting point when you want to learn the Devanagari script. Here, you will learn how to write or draw those artful letters.


Long vowels

The letters shown above stand for short vowels. For long vowels, the respective letters are extended.


Guttural plosives

These are plosive consonants, which are formed gutturally (i.e. in the throat).


Palatal plosives

These are plosive consonants which are formed palatally, i.e. as the word indicates at the palate.


Retroflex plosives

These are plosive consonants which are formed in a retroflex way (i.e. with the tongue rolled back).


Dental plosives

These are plosive consonants which are produced dentally (i.e. at the teeth).



Half vowel, half consonant. Although semivowels are not produced with pressure of plosive sounds, they also do not form independent syllables in the way vowels do.



Sibilants and aspirates which are produced by a close contact at the place of articulation and the resulting friction.



When several consonants follow each other, they are linked to form one single letter. Even though these links appear quite artful and can differ from handwriting to handwriting, they still follow certain rules.


Umlauts and vowel modifications

Diphtongs (umlauts or vowel mutations) are combinations of the basic vowels a, i and u. In this case, an a or ā is put in front of an i or u.


Labial plosives

These are plosive consonants which are produced labially (i.e. at the lips).

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