Sibilants and aspirates which are produced by a close contact at the place of articulation and the resulting friction.

Devanagari

श / śa

Spelling

  1. Draw two clockwise loops, one below the other, towards the centre bottom.
  2. Draw a vertical line from top to bottom next to them on the right.
  3. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the letter.

Spelling

  • hard śa as in Schale, Schach, Schatten
  • palatal place of articulation

ष / ṣa

Spelling

  1. Draw an u-shaped line from the top left to the top right, directly followed by a vertical line down.
  2. Within the u, draw another line from the top left to the bottom right.
  3. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the letter.

Pronunciation

  • soft ṣa as in the English wish
  • retroflex (behind the front teeth) place of articulation

स / sa

Spelling

  1. Draw a doubly curved line from the top to the bottom centre.
  2. Start at the right side of the curved line and draw a bow, first to the top right and then vertically down from top to bottom.
  3. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the letter.

Pronunciation

  • unvoiced sa as in muss, or the the Englisch summer, sunday
  • dental (between the teeth) place of articulation

ह / ha

Spelling

  1. Draw a short vertical line down, a horizontal line to the left and a bow to the bottom.
  2. Start at the centre and draw an anticlockwise circle through the endpoint of the first line towards the bottom right.
  3. Draw the horizontal line from left to right over the letter.

Pronunciation

  • unvoiced glottal aspirate ha as in Harmonie
  • guttural (at the throat) place of articulation
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