There are five types of mental projections (vr̥tti) that fill your inner perceptual space (citta). Partially pleasant and partially creating suffering, all of them stand in the way of your ability to perceive your Self.

Yoga Sutra 1: On the experience of absolute unity
vr̥ttayaḥnominative plural
vr̥ttisubstantive feminine
movements
vr̥ttisubstantive feminine
vr̥tverbal root
whirling, activity, ideas
vr̥tverbal rootwhirling, turning, rolling
pañcatayyaḥnominative plural
pañcatayasubstantive feminine
five things
pañcatayasubstantive femininefivefold
kliṣṭadvandva-compound
kliṣṭaadjective
painful
kliṣṭaadjective
kliśverbal root
excruciating, troublesome, annoying
kliśverbal rootto torment, plague, annoy
akliṣṭāḥnominative plural feminine
akliṣṭaadjective
not painful
akliṣṭaadjective
aprevixkliṣṭaverbal root
not excruciating, not troublesome, not annoying
aprevixnegation
kliṣṭaadjective
kliśverbal root
excruciating, troublesome, annoying
kliśverbal rootto torment, plague, annoy

Five kinds of thoughts and feelings (vr̥tti) can inhabit your inner perceptual space. Sometimes they are painful to you (kliṣṭa), sometimes pleasant (akliṣṭa).

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer

There are five kinds of movements (vr̥tti) [in the inner perceptual space (citta)], [sometimes these are] painful (kliṣṭa) [sometimes] not painful (akliṣṭa).

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Die Funktionen sind fünffach, bedrückt und nichtbedrückt (mit den kleças behaftet oder nicht behaftet). [The functions are five-fold, and either weigh down or do not weigh down (attached to kleças or not).]

Paul Deussen - 1908


The modifications (of the internal organ) are of five kinds, (and they are either) painful or not painful.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

pramāṇadvandva-compound
pramāṇa
truth, right perception
pramāṇasubstantive neuter
pramāna
measure, scale, norm, guideline
praprevixforwards, forth
mānasubstantive neuter
ana
opinion, idea
verbal rootmeasure, form, prepare
anasuffix neuterKr̥t- suffix with Guṇa-describes an action
viparyayadvandva-compound
viparyaya
interpretation, distorted perception
viparayayasubstantive masculine
viparii
conversion, change, wrongness
viprevixthrough, between
pariprevixall around
iverbal rootgo, flow
vikalpadvandva-compound
vikalpasubstantive masculine
fantasy, mental construction
vikalpasubstantive masculine
viprevixkalpasubstantive masculine
false idea, imagination
viprevixthrough, between
kalpasubstantive masculinerule, order, in a way, examination}
nidrādvandva-compound
nidrāsubstantive feminine
dullness, mental dullness
nidrāsubstantive feminine
niprevixdrāverbal root
sleep
niprevixdown, back
drāverbal rootto sleep
smr̥tayaḥnominative plural
smr̥tisubstantive feminine
memory
smr̥tisubstantive feminine
smr̥verbal root
memory
smr̥verbal rootto remember

You can never be certain, which of the five contents are inhabiting your inner space: truth (pramāṇa), interpretation (viparyaya), fantasy (vikalpa), dullness (nidrā) or memory (smr̥ti).

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


Right perception (pramāṇa), distorted perception (viparyaya), mental constructions (viklapa), mental dullness (nidrā) and memory (smr̥ti) [ are the five movements of the inner perceptual space ].

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Sie sind: [Richtiges Erkennen durch die] Erkenntnisnormen, Verkehrtheit, Annahme, Schlaf, Erinnerung. [They are right recognition through the norms of knowledge, wrongness, assumption, sleep, memory.]

Paul Deussen - 1908


(The modifications of the internal organ are) evidence (or right notion), misconception, fancy, sleep and memory.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

pratyakṣadvandva-compound
pratyakṣasubstantive masculine
truth, right perception
pratyakṣasubstantive masculine
pratiprevixakṣasubstantive masculine
before your eyes, clearly, immediate
pratiprevixagainst, backing away
akṣasubstantive masculine
akṣverbal root
eye
akṣverbal rootreach, permeate
anumānadvandva-compound
anumānasubstantive neuter
conclusion
anumāṇasubstantive neuter
anuprevixmānasubstantive neuter
to close, conclude
anuprevixfollowing, based on, under, after
mānasubstantive neuter
verbal rootanasuffix
opinion, idea
verbal rootto measure, form, prepare
anasuffix neuterKr̥t- {EN suffix with Guṇa - indicates an action}
āgamāḥnominative plural
āgamasubstantive masculine
acquired skills
āgamāsubstantive masculine
āprevixgamasubstantive masculine
āprevixtowards, nearby
gamasubstantive masculine
gamverbal root
the way, route
gamverbal rootto go, come, move
pramāṇāninominative plural
pramāṇasubstantive neuter
true picture of the outside world
pramāṇasubstantive neuter
praprevixmānasubstantive neuter
measure, scale, norm, guideline
praprevixforwards, forth
mānasubstantive neuter
verbal rootana |suff
opinion, idea
verbal rootto measure, form, prepare
anasuffix neuterKr̥t {EN suffix with Guṇa - indicates an action}

Direct sensory impressions (pratyakṣa), mental conclusions (anumāna) or things learned from others (āgama) can project a truth (pramāṇa) within your inner perceptual space.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


True perception (pramāṇa) [are] direct perceptions (pratyakṣa), conclusions (anumāna) and what is learned (āgama).

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Die Erkenntnisnormen sind: Wahrnehmung, Folgerung, Überlieferung. {EN: [The norms of knowledge are: perception, inference, tradition.]

Paul Deussen - 1908


The evidences are perception, inference and testimony.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

viparyayaḥnominative singular
viparyayasubstantive masculine
interpretation, distorted perception
viparayayasubstantive masculine
viprevixpariprevixiverbal root
transition, change, wrongness
viprevixthrough, between
pariprevixall around
iverbal rootto go, flow
mithyākarmadhāraya-compound
mithyāadjective
false
mithyāadjective
mithverbal root
wrong, false, not correct
mithverbal rootget into a fight, blame someone
jñānam nominative singular
jñānasubstantive neuter
knowledge
jñānasubstantive neuter
jñāverbal rootanasuffix neuter
knowledge
jñāverbal rootto know
anasuffix neuterKr̥t-suffix with Guṇa - indicates an action
atadkarmadhāraya-compound
aprevix ta |pron 3rd person
not the
aprevixnegation
tapronoun 3rd personnot the
rūpatatpuruṣa-compound
rūpasubstantive neuter
form
rūpasubstantive neuterform
pratiṣṭhamnominative singular neuter
pratiṣṭhaadjective
based
pratiṣṭhaadjective
pratiprevixsthāverbal root
the standing, remaining
pratiprevixagainst, contrary, back
sthārbleibento stay put

Mislearning (mithyā-jñānam) or distorted observation (atad-rūpa) can project an interpretation (viparyaya) in your inner perceptual space.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


Distorted perception (vipraryaya) [is] false knowledge (mithyā-jñānam), it [is] not based on a [true] form (rūpa).

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Verkehrtheit ist die falsche Erkenntnis, welche bei dem stehen bleibt, was nicht das Wesen der Sache ist. [Wrongness is false knowledge that ends up not being the essence of that thing.]

Paul Deussen - 1908


Misconception ist incorrect notion. Not staying in the (proper) form of that (in respect whereof the misconception is entertained).

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

śabdatatpuruṣa-compound genitive
śabdasubstantive masculine
word
śabdasubstantive masculine
śabdverbal root
word
śabdverbal roota sound, make a sound, to call
jñānatatpuruṣa-compound dative
jñānasubstantive neuter
knowledge
jñānasubstantive neuter
jñāverbal rootanasuffix
knowledge
jñāverbal rootto know
anasuffixindicates an action
anupātīnominative singular masculine
anupātinadjective
following
anupātinadjective
anuprevixpātinadjective
following, pursuing
anuprevixfollowing, based on, under, after
pātinadjective
patverbal root
flying, falling
patrvom Himmelto fall downward, fly
vastutatpuruṣa-compound genitive
vastusubstantive neuter
object
vastusubstantive neuter
vasverbal roottusuffix
object
vasverbal rootto live, soujourn
tusuffixsuffix to form a nomina actionis
śūnyaḥnominative singular masculine
śūnyaadjective
without
śūnyaadjective
śvāverbal root
empty, without
śvāverbal rootincrease
vikalpaḥnominative singular
vikalpasubstantive masculine
fantasy, mental construction
vikalpasubstantive masculine
viprevixkalpasubstantive masculine
misconception, imagination
viprevixthrough, between
kalpasubstantive masculinerule, order, modality, examination

Stupid things learned (śabda-jñāna) or contents without any correspondence (vastu-śūnya) can project a fanstasy (vikalpa) into your inner perceptual space.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


Mental construction (vikalpa) [is] following words or knowledge (śabda-jñāna) without a [true] object (vastu-śūnya).

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Der [bloßen] Erkenntnis durch Worte nachgehend, des Objektes bar ist die Annahme. [Pursing mere knowledge through words creates assumption without an object.]

Paul Deussen - 1908


A fancy is (a notion) devoid of A thing (in reality corresponding thereto), following upon knowledge (conveyed) by words.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

abhāvatatpuruṣa-compound ablative
abhāvasubstantive masculine
absence
abhāvasubstantive masculine
aprevixbhāvasubstantive masculine
absence
aprevixnegation
bhāvasubstantive masculine
bhūverbal root
the becoming, being, taking place
bhūverbal rootto become, arise, happen
pratyayatatpuruṣa-compound genitive
pratyayasubstantive masculine
impressions, convictions, ideas, beliefs
pratyayasubstantive masculine
pratiprevixiverbal root
belief, conviction, certainty, presentation
pratiprevixback, contrary to, against
iverbal rootto go, go out, go to
ālambanānominative singular feminine
ālambanaadjective
based on
ālambanaadjective
āprevixlambanaadjective
support
āprevixup to, until
lambanaadjective
lambverbal rootanasuffix
hanging down
lambverbal roothanging down, hanging on
anasuffix neuterKr̥t- suffix with Guṇa- indicates an action
vr̥ttiḥnominative singular
vr̥ttisubstantive feminine
movement
vr̥ttisubstantive feminine
vr̥tverbal root
rolling, work, thoughts
vr̥tverbal rootto whirl, roll
nidrānominative singular
nidrāsubstantive feminine
to doze off, sleep
nidrāsubstantive feminine
niprevixdrāverbal root
sleep
niprevixdown, back
drāverbal rootto sleep


Mental dullness (nidrā) [is] a movement [in your perceptual space (citta)], which [is] based on the absence (abhāva) of impressions (pratyaya)x.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation

x:

In some manuscripts, especially the one to which Krishnamacharya and his students refer to, the word tamaḥ is found. It describes the mental movements (vr̥tti) in more details. With this addition it is about ‘dull’ mental movements (vr̥tti) in the inner perceptual space (citta). In these manuscripts, the line is written as follows:

abhāva-rpatyayālambanā tamo vr̥ttir-nidrā


Die nicht auf einer realen Vorstellung fußende Funktion ist der Schlaf. [The function not based on a real imagination is sleep.]

Paul Deussen - 1908


Sleep is that modification (of the internal organ) which depends on the conception of nothing.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

anubhūtakarmadhāraya-compound
anubhūtaadjective
perceived
anubhūtaadjective
anuprevixbhūtaadjective
perceived
anuprevixfollowing, based on, under, after
bhūtaadjective
bhūverbal root
been, become
bhūverbal rootto become, arise, happen
viṣayatatpuruṣa-compound genitive
viṣayasubstantive masculine
field, object
viṣayasubstantive masculine
viṣverbal root
field, object
viṣverbal rootto be active, do, work
asaṁpramoṣaḥnominative singular
asaṁpramoṣasubstantive masculine
not completely faded
asaṁpramoṣasubstantive masculine
aprevixsamprevixpramoṣasubstantive masculine
not completely faded
aprevixnegation
samprevixtogether, with, completely
pramoṣasubstantive masculine
praprevixmoṣasubstantive masculine
stealing
praprevixforwards, forth
moṣasubstantive masculine
muṣverbal root
burglar, thief
muṣverbal rootsteal
smr̥tiḥnominative singular
smr̥tisubstantive feminine
memory
smr̥tisubstantive feminine
smr̥verbal root
memory
smr̥verbal rootto remember

If a projection does not completely fade (anubhūta-viṣayāsaṁpramiṣa), a memory (smr̥ti) arises in your inner perceptual space.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


Memory (smr̥tti) [is a] not completely faded (asaṁpramoṣa) [previously] perceived object (viṣaya)

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Das Nicht-abhandenkommen eines Objektes, dessen man inne ward, ist die Erinnerung. {EN: [The failure to lose an object that you became aware of is memory.]

Paul Deussen - 1908


Memory is the not letting go of an object that one has been aware of.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

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