The external world is reflected in the subjective and ever-changing perceptual space (citta). The unchanging essence (puruṣa) observes this reflection.

Yoga Sutra 4: On Inner Freedom
sadā
sadāadverb
anytime
sadāadverbanytime
jñātāḥnominative plural
jñātaadjective
known
jñataadjective
jñaverb
known
jñaverbto know
cittatatpuruṣa-compound lokative
cittasubstantive neuter
perceptual space
cittasubstantive neuter
citverb
thinking, thoughts, mind, spirit}
citverbperceive, notice, observe
vr̥ttayaḥnominative plural
vr̥ttisubstantive feminine
rolling, activity, thoughts
vr̥ttisubstantive feminine
vr̥tverb
rolling, activity, thoughts
vr̥tverbwhirling, turning, rolling
tattatpuruṣa-compound genitive
tapronoun 3rd person
it
tapronoun 3rd personhe, she, it
prabhoḥgenitive singular
prabhuadjective / substantive masculine
powerful, master
prabhuadjective / substantive masculine
praprevixbhūverb
outstanding, superior, powerful, lord, master
praprevixforwards, forth
bhūverbto become, arise, occur
puruṣasyāgenitive singular
puruṣasubstantive masculine
puru.sasya man, person, the inspiration of man, soul
puruṣasubstantive masculineman, person, the inspiration of man, soul
apariṇāmitvātablative singular
aprevixpariṇāminadjectivetvasuffix
immutability
aprevixnegation
pariṇāminadjective
pariprevixnamverbinsuffix
changing, transforming, subject to a change of form
pariprevixaround, completely, beyond, across
namverbto bow, to bow before
insuffixindicates possession, who does ___
tvasuffixNomen Abstraktum: -ly

What is reflected in your perceptual space (citta) is perceived by your essence (puruṣa), because it cannot be changed.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


The processes (vritti) in the perceptual space (citta) [will be] recognized, based on the immutability of your core essence (puruṣa), the powerful master.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Die Funktionen des Cittam werden jederzeit erkannt, weil sein Gebieter, der Purusha, unwandelbar besteht.

Paul Deussen - 1908


The modifications of the mental states are always known, because the presiding spirit is not modified.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

na
naparticle
not
naparticlenot
tat nominative singular neuter
tapronoun 3rd person
this
tapronoun 3rd personthis
svābhāsamnominative singular
svābhāsaadjective
shine on it’s own
svabhāsaadjective
svaadverbbhāsaadjective
shine on it’s own
svaadverbown
bhāsaadjective / substantive masculinelight, shine, bright, shiny
dr̥śyatvātablative singular
dr̥śyaadjectivetvasuffix
visibility
dr̥śyaadjective
dr̥śverb
visible, worth seeing
dr̥śverbsehen, erblicken
tvasuffixNomen Abstraktum: -ly

You don’t perceive the world directly, but only it’s reflection in your perceptual space (citta). It is an observable object and part of this world.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


From the visibility [of the perceptual space (citta)] it follows, that this [perceptual space (citta)] does not shine on it’s own, [read: the Observer].

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Das Cittam ist nicht selbst Licht, weil es nur Objekt ist.

Paul Deussen - 1908


It is not self-illuminative inasmuch as it is cognisable.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

ekadvigu-compound
ekanumeral
one
ekanumeralone
samayelokative singular
samayasubstantive masculine
meeting, encounter
samayasubstantive masculine
samprevixayasubstantive masculine
encounter, circumstance, custom, situation
samprevixtogether, with
ayasubstantive masculine
iverb
walk, run
iverbto go
ca
caparticle
and
caparticleand
ubhayatatpuruṣa-compound genitive
ubhayaadjective
both
ubhayaadjective
ubhverb
both, double-sided
ubhverbhold together, lock in
anavadhāraṇamnominative singular neuter
anprevixavadhāraṇasubstantive neuter
no function takeover
anprevixnegation
avadhāraṇasubstantive neuter
avaprevixdhāraṇaverb
precise determination
avaprevixherunter, weg, fort downward, off, away
dhāraṇaverb
dhr̥verb
hold, hold back
dhr̥verbhold, carry support

One thing cannot be a viewed object and a viewing subject at the same time. Your perceptual space (citta) is the object under contemplation, while your essence (puruṣa) is the subject in contemplation.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


… and in one given point in time (eka-samye) there cannot be functional takeover (an-avadhāraṇa) of both [tasks, namely to be the object and subject of perception].

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Auch läßt sich nicht behaupten, daß es gleichzeitig beides [Subjekt und Objekt] sein könne.

Paul Deussen - 1908


Attention of two (objects) cannot take place simultaneously.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

cittakarmadhāraya-compound
cittasubstantive neuter
perceptual space
cittasubstantive neuter
citverb
thinking, thoughts, mind, spirit
citverbperceive, notice, observe
antaratatpuruṣa-compound genitive
antarasubstantive neuter
inner, another
antarasubstantive neuter
antaradverb
Inneres
antaradverbinside, within, adjacent, different
dr̥śyelokative absolutive singular
dr̥śyasubstantive masculine / adjective
catch sight of
dr̥śyasubstantive masculine / adjective
dr̥śverb
visible, worth seeing
dr̥śverbto see, to catch sight of
buddhitatpuruṣa-compound genitive
buddhisubstantive feminine
insight, realization
buddhisubstantive feminine
budhverb
insight, realization
budhverbawaken, wake up, come to one’s senses, notice, pay attention to
buddheḥgenitive / ablative singular
buddhisubstantive feminine
insight, realization
buddhisubstantive feminine
budhverb
insight, realization
budhverbawaken, wake up, come to one’s senses, notice, pay attention to
atiprasaṅgaḥnominative singular
atiprasaṅgasubstantive masculine
a strong connection, a great incination
atiprasaṅgasubstantive masculine
atiprevixprasaṅgasubstantive masculine
a strong connection, a great inclination
atiprevixbeyond, over, past
prasaṅgasubstantive masculine
praprevixsañjverb
devotion, indulgence
praprevixforwards, ahead
sañjverbattach, connect, adhere
smr̥titatpuruṣa-compound lokative
smr̥tisubstantive feminine
Erinnerung
smr̥tisubstantive feminine
smr̥verb
memory
smr̥verbto remember
saṁkaraḥnominative singular
saṁkarasubstantive masculine
mixing
saṁkarasubstantive masculine
samprevixkr̥verb
mixing, blending, mixture
samprevixtogether, with
kr̥verbaccomplish, execute, effect
ca
caparticle
and
caparticleand

There must be an absolute Observer (puruṣa). If one perceptual space can perceive another there would be one which outshines the next, and then the memories (smr̥ti) of the perceptual spaces would mix.

Dr. Ronald Steiner - modern transfer


...and because seeing another perceptual space (citta) [through one perceptual space (citta) or] seeing another mind (buddhi) through another mind [would lead] to a mutual blending of the two memories (smr̥ti).

Dr. Ronald Steiner - historic word by word translation


Könnte ein fremdes Cittam Objekt [des eigenen Cittam] werden, so würde es eine Buddhi der Buddhi geben, woraus zuviel folgen würde [man müßte dann auch den Inhalt der fremden Buddhi kennen], auch würde eine Vermengung der beiderseitigen Erinnerungen die Folge sein.

Paul Deussen - 1908


If one perception be cognisable by another then there would be the further necessity of cognition. And a confusion of recollection also would take place.

James R. Ballantyne - 1852

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