Finally, the fourth chapter of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra is about liberation - Kaivalya Pada.

Yoga-Sutra

Kaivalya-Pada

Sentence 34

purusha-artha-shunyanam gunanam-pratiprasavah kaivalyam svarupa-pratishtha va chitishaktiriti ||34||

पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानांप्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति ॥३४॥

puruṣa-artha-śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ-pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti ॥34॥

Liberation (kaivalya) fulfills the goal of the true self (purusha); matter (guna) is transcended. The true nature of being and the force of absolute knowledge are then revealed. ||34||


puruṣa = (iic. from puruṣārtha) true self; drashtu
artha = purpose; goal
śūnyānām = (g. pl. m./g. pl. n. g. pl. f. from śūnya) devoid; fulfillment
guṇānām = (gen. pl. from guṇa) the three basic properties of matter
prati = (iic.) back; against
pariṇāmaḥ = (nom. sg. m., from prasava) creation; evolution
pratiprasavaḥ = to overcome; to re-immerse
kaivalyam = (acc. sg. n./nom. sg. n. from kaivalya) liberation; enlightenment; the goal of yoga; samadhi
svarūpa = (iic.) own form
pratiṣṭḥā = (nom. pl. m./acc. pl. f./nom. pl. f. from pratiṣṭḥa) established; appear
= (conj.) or
citi = (loc. sg. f. from cit) absolute knowledge; consciousness; the true self; drashtu
śaktiḥ = (nom. sg. f./nom. sg. m. from śakti) power; force
iti = (prep.) the end

Here, Patañjali echoes the beginning of his Yoga Sūtrāni. This type of liberation from the impressions in the unity of the physical, energy, emotional and mental domains allows you to recognize the true nature of your own being.

In this context, the four basic human desires (puruṣārtha) are duty (dharma), wealth (artha), sex (kāma) and self fulfillment (mok.sa). The basic elements of matter (guṇa) are unease (Rajas), mental impurity (tamas) and purity (sattva). Thus once you have experienced kaivalya, you are no longer subject to the normal laws and are happy without depending on an external event to make you happy.

The only genuine achievement is seeking eternal truth and dwelling within it. All other achievements (siddhis) are the stuff of dreams. Once you have experienced the absolute, everything becomes infinite, and all fear comes to an end. Samadhi can only be experienced, and cannot be described, for our minds cannot comprehend it.

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